It starts to be beautiful, the sun is heating up, but the temperature of the pool water does not follow … and goes up slowly. In April, the water is usually quite cold (10-12 °) … so without a heating system, difficult to enjoy the pool immediately!
The pool heat pump (or heat pump ) is the most current heating system in recent years. The CAP efficient, economical, and ecological. It guarantees water at 28 ° C throughout the season (and this as early as April if you want!) And at a relatively low cost. The heat pump uses the renewable and free energy contained in the environment. When it uses one calorie in electricity to work, the cap makes five calories taken in the air to heat the pool water.
The general principle of a heat pump
The heat pump captures the calories (heat) naturally present in the environment (air, water, soil), converts them, and restores them to a higher temperature, which then diffuses into the house or transmits to the home—pool water.
For example, the refrigerator and air conditioner use the heat pump principle to operate.
Heat pumps are classified according to the environment from which they draw their energy (air, water, or soil) and the diffusion system (air, water, or refrigerant). We talk about an Air-Air heat pump, Air-Water, Water-Water, etc. A pool heat pump is usually an air-water type.
The swimming pool heater works like a fridge upside down; it allows you to heat the water of the swimming pool by passing it from 15 to 28 ° C.
Operation of a Pool Heat Pump
To take the heat from the air and transfer it to the pool, a fluid called “refrigerant” will circulate in the heat pump in the liquid or gaseous state in a sealed and sealed circuit.
This circuit is composed of 4 essential systems
- The evaporator
- The compressor
- The condenser
- The regulator
The heat pump captures the calories from the compressor and then raises them to a higher temperature. This operation is carried out thanks to the refrigerant, which has the particularity to change state according to its pressure.
- The fluid becomes gaseous when its pressure increases (the liquid boils)
- The fluid becomes liquid when its pressure drops (the vapor condenses)
While boiling, the fluid sucks calories, and by condensing himself, he frees them.
- The heat taken from the air is transmitted to the refrigerant than in the liquid state.
- The refrigerant enters the evaporator at low temperature.
- It captures the calories of the air much hotter.
- The temperature of the fluid increases and it eventually turns into vapor (gas) > Evaporation
- The compressor draws the fluid as gas and compresses it under high pressure > Compression
- This compression produces heat because it heats the gas, which reaches a temperature of 90 ° C.
- At the outlet of the compressor, the refrigerant is thus at high pressure and in the form of hot gas.
- The gas at 90 ° C enters the condenser, its role being to take the heat of the gas to transmit it to the water to be heated.
- The gas then comes into contact with the hot source, which is at 25 ° C.
- There is a heat exchange.
- The gas cools and transmits some of its heat to the hot source: both are at about 45 ° C.
- While cooling, the gas becomes again in the liquid state; it condenses> Condensation.
- At the outlet of the condenser, the refrigerant liquid is in the form of liquid at room temperature, always at high pressure.
- The refrigerant now goes into the regulator
- The regulator creates a low-pressure environment, thus reducing its pressure > Relaxation
- This pressure drop causes significant cooling of the liquid (-20 ° C).
5. Evaporator – Back to square
- The freezing liquid comes into contact with the cold source (which is hotter than the liquid).
- The liquid then heats up to the boiling.
- It is then re-sucked by the compressor.
6. And soon, a new cycle begins
Installation of a Pool Heat Pump
The swimming pool heating circuit is autonomous: it does not connect to a heat pump circuit for your home. Indeed, the needs are not at all the same. To heat a radiator at home, a water circuit is required at 60 ° C, while for a pool, 40 ° C is sufficient. The pool heat pumps are of smaller power.
It is possible to install your pool heat pump yourself. You still have to respect some installation rules, especially the installation in bypass. The PAC circuit is installed after the pump and the filter (and if you have one: before your treatment device)