Currently, there are many products for cleaning presented in stores or supermarkets, presented under different types and brands. However, the ultrasonic cleaner is of a completely different category in that it is incredibly effective than any other cleaning process and solvent harmful not only for health but also for the environment. Indeed, the ultrasonic cleaner, unlike other processes, deep cleans, deoxidizes, decreases, and eliminates impurities on all kinds of materials. The question is: how does an ultrasonic cleaner work?
Operating principle of the ultrasonic cleaner
The ultrasonic cleaning process is usually a potent and gentle cleaning method. Ultrasound form, in practice, pressure variations propagating on all materials that have been immersed in a liquid. Then, the vibrations in question produce tiny bubbles, the latter have the specificity of imploding by releasing, and this in the immediate one high energy thus causing the detachment or the take-off of soiling; even in the recesses that before we considered inaccessible. Moreover, the implosion of said bubbles also causes movements in the bath promoting during cleaning.
The liquid gets into all cavities, crevices, and even inside the smaller cavities and cleans them. In this sense, the ultrasonic cleaner cleans the most complex parts and at the same time removes small particles that can not be cleaned by hand. Also, this cleaning process completely removes all dirt, impurities, oxidation, carbon deposits, grease, not to mention the contaminants of all surfaces of objects in contact with the ultrasonic cleaner.
Structure and function of an ultrasonic cleaning device
Ultrasonic cleaning devices are used to clean a wide variety of objects. These can be small, complex and finely structured components, as well as surgical instruments, for the treatment of which high-performance ultrasonic baths are used. Jewelers, goldsmiths, dental technicians, watchmakers, and optometrists also clean their products in an ultrasonic bath.
But how does this helpful technology work and how is an ultrasonic cleaner built? These questions should be answered here.
Ultrasonic cleaner – basic design
An ultrasonic bath consists of a tub filled with liquid, which is usually made of stainless steel. Depending on the application, the liquids can often be additionally heated up. The ultrasound is generated using so-called ultrasonic oscillators, also called ultrasound transducers, wherein there are three different variants regarding construction:
– The ultrasonic transducer is mounted directly on the bottom of the tub.
– It is a so-called exchange swinging, which is hung in the liquid.
– There is a plate vibrator on the wall of the basin.
All variants are designed in such a way that the sound field builds up uniformly and does not remain static at any point. To prevent sound waves from escaping from the ultrasonic cleaner, there is a corresponding insulating layer around the housing. To avoid contact with the parts to be cleaned, most devices have a lid.
In practice, there are both ultrasonic cleaners that hold between 0.5 and 5.0 liters of liquid as well as devices with very large tubs with a capacity of up to 250 liters. Inside the tub is a cleaning basket, in which the parts are inserted. This basket is either permanently installed or removable in the ultrasonic cleaner.
Depending on the material composition of the parts to be cleaned in the ultrasonic cleaning device, different cleaning liquids are used (alkaline, acid, or neutral). An ultrasonic bath can also be operated with or without a cleaning agent, depending on the items to be cleaned.
Important technical components
Piezoceramic transducer systems generate the ultrasonic vibrations. Depending on the structure, stick (plate vibrator) or hang (immersion oscillator) in the oscillating trough. Within the transducer, systems are piezoceramic discs that expand and contract as soon as the voltage is applied. To generate ultrasound, a high-frequency generator capable of converting the line frequency from 50 Hz to at least 20 kHz is required. Its size determines the working frequency of the ultrasonic vibration system.
Ultrasound device – functioning
Oscillation frequencies above 18,000 movements per second or over 18 kHz are referred to in physics as ultrasound. Ultrasonic cleaners work with vibrations that are between 20 and 400 kHz. The result is an ultrasonic field that develops waves that transport both overpressure and negative pressure. The functioning of an ultrasound device is based on the change between these overpressures and negative pressures.
During a vacuum wave, tiny vacuum bubbles collect on the object to be cleaned. The effect is called cavitation. Each vesicle contains a vapor filled cavity. The continuous change of incoming and bursting air bubbles removes the dirt from the surface of the ultrasonic bath parts.
The higher the frequency, the more gentle and at the same time more intensive the ultrasonic cleaner works. This law also arises from the operation of the device. While lower frequencies produce comparatively large cavitation bubbles and thus more powerful pressure surges, at high frequencies tiny, but significantly more bubbles form, which cause softer pressure surges when bursting.
The smallest opening or structure that can be cleaned by the sound determines the required frequency The wavelength in the water must be less than half the aperture diameter of the structure. If this is not the case, the sound can not penetrate and the surface would be smooth and closed for the ultrasonic waves.
The effect of cavitation is often the cause of damage and wear in technical equipment such as pumps or water turbines, as in the long run, metal is attacked by the dissolution of the bubbles.
In practical use of an ultrasonic cleaner for cleaning parts, the use of solvents, acids or alkalis has a positive effect on the cleaning effect. An advantageous effect of a suitable cleaning agent is the reduction of the surface tension of the water. However, no flammable liquids are used as cleaning agents that they can ignite the bath liquid of the ultrasonic cleaner when the heat input due to the ultrasound exceeds the ignition temperature.
The various benefits of the ultrasonic cleaner
There are many benefits we can derive from using the ultrasonic cleaner; because as it has been said above the method of operation of the ultrasonic cleaner is much more effective than any other method of cleaning.
First, the ultrasonic cleaner can clean, decrease in places where brushes and brushes cannot pass, namely small precision parts, complex shapes.
Second, the ultrasonic cleaner removes any form of impurity on all types of materials, such as non-ferrous metals, steel, precious metals, glasses, rubber; etc.
Thirdly, it is also significant to note that the ultrasonic cleaner dioxide, but also removes any form of rust, and this without micro-scratching or damaging the parts to be cleaned.
Fourthly, the ultrasonic cleaner allows a much more pampering, quick and effortless cleaning of all materials.
Fifth, the ultrasonic cleaner saves the user time; it should also be noted that the user in question can take care of other tasks during the cleaning cycle.
In the sixth and last place, this method avoids inhaling the toxic vapors during its use.