You’re in a chemistry lab, and you have to do a distillation. There is a possibility that you use a Bunsen burner to heat the liquid mixture until it boils. Bunsen’s beaks are the most commonly used source of heat in the laboratories of organic or inorganic elemental chemistry. You will not be forced to lose your patience, even if you have no experience.
Ensure a safe environment
- A fireproof blanket. Use it to wind it if you want to stop the fire. The blanket will suffocate the flame, depriving it of the necessary oxygen.
- Fire extinguishers. Learn the location of each one. It will not hurt to know even if the update inspection was done. At the same time, you can select the available models and organize an action plan in case of an emergency. There are many types of fire extinguishers, and each one is marked with a colored ring above.
- The dry-retardant powder can be used in any kind of fire, except for oils. Dust extinguishers can be used on standard, liquid, gaseous and electrical equipment. Fire extinguishers containing a powder that retards a particular color of the ring characterizes the flame. Learn more about the color used in your country.
- Foam o CO 2 they are for oil fires.
- Fire extinguishers in CO 2 They can also be used on electrical appliances and flammable liquids.
- The foam can also be used for flammable liquids or solids (paper, wood, etc.).
- Learn to use a fire extinguisher. Pull out the pin and unlock the safety mechanism with the nozzle to you. Tap down on the base of the fire. Press the extinguisher slowly and evenly. Sprinkle the mixture from side to side.
- A fire hose. It is useful for large fires and should be used by people trained in procedures. Spray the hearth to cool the flammable material (the burning one). Water can be used for solids such as wood, paper, clothing, furniture, etc., but not for flammable liquids such as gases, oils, and even electrical equipment. Never use water on liquids that are less dense than water (1.0 g / cm 3 ). These liquids float on the surface, and spraying water would only cause the spread of fire.
- A safety shower. If your clothes catch fire and are not impregnated with flammable liquids, it might be the right choice. The safety shower can first wash away the acids from your body, but it can be useful in the event of a fire.
- Make sure you keep your hair tied when you are tall and fasten (or remove) your loose garments. Stop the tie and remove the jewels. “Think ahead” and eliminate threats before they become concrete issues. There must be nothing that could catch fire.
Learn how Bunsen’s beak works
- The bottom of the beak that rests on the table is called the base. The base provides stability and prevents the beak from tipping over.
- The vertical part of the beak is called the trunk.
- At the bottom of the shaft, there is an outer shell (the collar) that can be turned to expose the cracks of the stem, the so-called air holes. This allows air to enter the stem where it is mixed with the gas to produce a highly flammable gaseous compound.
- The gas enters the drum through a needle valve that can be adjusted to control the flow.
- The air and the gas mix in the stem. When the collar is turned to close the air openings, the air does not enter the shaft. All the oxygen needed for combustion is supplied from the top of the trunk from the ambient air. The flame will turn yellow and will be the coldest. It is often called a safety flame. If the beak is not used, the collar must be turned so that the air openings are closed and the cold safety flame is generated.
- The needle valve and collar are used together to control the volume and correct percentage of the gas to be introduced. The amount of injected gas determines, to a large extent, the amount of heat generated. A considerable amount of gas and air produces the hottest flame. The total volume of gaseous compound rising in the trunk determines the height of the flame.
- You can easily open the needle valve and the air vents to reach a hot and small flame, or you can let both streams in at the same time to create a higher hot flame.
Light Bunsen’s beak
- You must light the match or have a ready light and then turn the handle (by the gas mark) and slightly open the needle valve. This ensures you first a small flame.
- The best way to use a burner is with a gaslighter. This tool uses a flint on the metal to create a spark.
- Try to create so many sparks that you can create a stable spark each time you hit it. Push the stone towards the knocker as you lift it. This will allow you to emit a more reliable flash. Practice until you issue a strong spark each time. Now you are ready to light the burner.
- If you do not have the lighter, you can use a match or lighter. Before opening the gas, ignite the match or lighter and keep it slightly away from the burner. Open the gas and bring the ignition source to the side of the gas column. Once the flame is lit, put the match or lighter away. Let the game go completely; then, you can put it on the table, apart from the experiment.
Control the flame
- To adjust the flame height, the gas flow varies by opening and closing the needle valve. More gas gives you a more prominent flameless gas, a smaller flame.
- For a warmer flame, turn the collar down until the holes (air connections) are fully open. Adjust it until you reach the desired heat.
- The hottest flame is sometimes called “work flame.” To create a blue flame, open the collar holes to allow more oxygen to enter the combustion chamber. The holes must be complete or almost open.
- A blue flame is scorching (about 1500 ° C) and not very visible. On some backgrounds, it can be almost invisible.
- Many adjustments must be made through experiments and mistakes, but nothing is more important than safety. You will soon learn in which colors the specific temperatures match, at least in principle.
Check and clean
- Make sure that the gas is closed after the burner test is completed.
- Watch out for anything that can topple the burner or come into contact with the flame.
- Use the safety flame or turn off the burner completely when not in use.
- Do not touch each flame or the upper part of the stem. You could suffer severe burns.
Things that you need
- A Bunsenbeak
- A gas source
- One source of ignition: matches, lighter, etc.
- A refractory axis (optional)
- safety goggles